Wednesday, December 7, 2016


Frå Scher et al sin reviewartikkel, utgjeve i 2016. Dei er gode forskarar, og er tilbakehaldne med å trekke sterke konklusjonar. "More research will be needed" etc. Men ja. Pilene peikar rimeleg tydeleg i visse retningar. 
Jose Scher og teamet hans, på NYU, kartla bakteriane i magen til folk med artritt. Dei fann vesentleg meir Prevotella Copri hjå artritt-pasientar, og vesentleg mindre Bacteroides. I denne artikkelen drøftast dette funnet, og ein gjennomgår nyaste forskning på korleis bakterieflora kan bidra til at artritt oppstår, som sjukdom.

Basically trengst det meir forskning, og desse tinga er svært komplekse. MEN mykje data peikar tydeleg i retning av at det grunnleggjande problemet ein har å gjere med, er "gut dysbiosis", dvs. at bakteriefloraen i magen er ubalansert på ulikt vis, og at bakteriane skaper avfallsstoff som er giftige for kroppen. Behandlingsmessig kan konklusjonen på desse tinga vere at ein treng å arbeide med målretta diett, tilføring av sunne bakteriar, ulike typar av antibiotika for magen etc.







In addition, the P. copri genome encodes phosphoadenosine phosphosulfate reductase, an oxidoreductase that participates in the production of thioredoxin. Thioredoxin has been widely implicated in the pathogenesis of RA and significantly increased concentrations of thioredoxin have been observed in both serum and synovial fluid of RA patients [42]. (Altså: Bakterien skaper eit stoff som både er implisert i korleis artritt oppstår, og som også finst i ledda hjå RA-pasientar).



Although the direct mechanism has not yet been elucidated, this finding suggests that the overgrowth of P. copri may have a pathogenic role in the development of NORA. (D. e. nylig oppstått artritt).


It also supports the hypothesis that normal intestinal microbiota and their degradation products may be involved in the development of autoimmune arthritis in genetically susceptible individuals, which was previously proposed by Toivanen in 2003 [43].





Moreover, the gut microbiota also have the capacity to influence autoimmune disease incidence in genetically predisposed animal models by altering sex-hormone levels [44].

Another in vivo study demonstrated that the gut microbiota, in association with HLA genes, determine the innate and adaptive immune system and contribute to the susceptibility to arthritis [45].

Taken together, the underlying mechanistic relationships among gut microbiota, immune system and RA are under intense investigations. Even though it is still challenging to define the exact role of gut microbiota in the etiology of RA, current evidence suggests that gut microbiota indeed contribute to the pathogenesis of RA via multiple potential molecular mechanisms. More mechanistic studies are needed to elucidate how gut microbiota contribute to the development of RA.




42. Maurice, M.M.; Nakamura, H.; Gringhuis, S.; Okamoto, T.; Yoshida, S.; Kullmann, F.; Lechner, S.; van der Voort, E.A.; Leow, A.; Versendaal, J.; et al. Expression of the thioredoxin-thioredoxin reductase system in the inflamed joints of patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis Rheum. 1999, 42, 2430–2439. [CrossRef]

43. Toivanen, P. Normal intestinal microbiota in the aetiopathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis. Ann. Rheum Dis. 2003, 62, 807–811. [CrossRef] [PubMed]

44. Markle, J.G.; Frank, D.N.; Mortin-Toth, S.; Robertson, C.E.; Feazel, L.M.; Rolle-Kampczyk, U.; von Bergen, M.; McCoy, K.D.; Macpherson, A.J.; Danska, J.S. Sex differences in the gut microbiome drive hormone-dependent regulation of autoimmunity. Science 2013, 339, 1084–1088. [CrossRef] [PubMed]

45. Gomez, A.; Luckey, D.; Yeoman, C.J.; Marietta, E.V.; Berg Miller, M.E.; Murray, J.A.; White, B.A.; Taneja, V. Loss of sex and age driven differences in the gut microbiome characterize arthritis-susceptible 0401 mice but not arthritis-resistant 0402 mice. PLoS ONE 2012, 7, e36095.

46. Jia, W.; Li, H.; Zhao, L.; Nicholson, J.K. Gut microbiota: A potential new territory for drug targeting. Nat. Rev. Drug Discov. 2008, 7, 123–129. [CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tuesday, December 6, 2016

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a systemic, inflammatory, and autoimmune disorder. Gut microbiota play an important role in the etiology of RA. With the considerable progress made in next-generation sequencing techniques, the identified gut microbiota difference between RA patients and healthy individuals provides an updated overview of the association between gut microbiota and RA. We reviewed the reported correlation and underlying molecular mechanisms among gut microbiota, the immune system, and RA.

It has become known that gut microbiota contribute to the pathogenesis of RA via multiple molecular mechanisms.

The progressive understanding of the dynamic interaction between gut microbiota and their host will help in establishing a highly individualized management for each RA patient, and achieve a better efficacy in clinical practice, or even discovering new drugs for RA.

Frå DENNE forskningsartikkelen. Med ein haug med referansar.
The second paper, published in Arthritis and Rheumatology, explored another facet of gut bacteria. Dr. Taneja treated one group of arthritis-susceptible mice with a bacterium, Prevotella histicola, and compared that to a group that had no treatment. The study found that mice treated with the bacterium had decreased symptom frequency and severity, and fewer inflammatory conditions associated with rheumatoid arthritis. The treatment produced fewer side effects, such as weight gain and villous atrophy -- a condition that prevents the gut from absorbing nutrients -- that may be linked with other, more traditional treatments.

While human trials have not yet taken place, the mice's immune systems and arthritis mimic humans, and shows promise for similar, positive effects. Since this bacterium is a part of healthy human gut, treatment is less likely to have side effects, says study co-author Joseph Murray, M.D., a Mayo Clinic gastroenterologist.

Frå denne forskningsoppsummeringa.
Jose Scher, MD, a rheumatologist at New York University Langone Medical Center, studies the connection between intestinal bugs and arthritis. He thinks the overgrowth of normally benign bacteria called Prevotella – which are far more abundant in people with untreated RA – may trigger an inflammatory response that targets the joints. It’s also possible Prevotella crowds out beneficial bacteria that keep inflammation in check. Either way, Scher is confident there’s a connection between the microbiome and arthritis.

...

One of the hottest questions right now is whether it will be possible to treat arthritis and other diseases by adjusting the microbiome. A growing number of scientists think so.

Writing in a review article published in the March 2016 issue of Current Opinion in Rheumatology, researchers from the University of Glasgow in the UK noted that “interventions targeting the microbiota may become therapeutically viable for some types of inflammatory arthritis.”

That idea is echoed by Martin Blaser, MD, a microbiologist at New York University Langone Medical Center and a widely respected microbiome expert.

“This is a fertile area for research because we know that particular microbes talk to human physiology in different ways with different vocabularies. As our understanding of this relationship grows, we may use it to regulate disease,” he says.


Frå denne artikkelen.
Bilderesultat for fauda

Fauda. På Netflix. DRITbra serie.

Monday, December 5, 2016

Recent neurobiological insights into this gut–brain crosstalk have revealed a complex, bidirectional communication system that not only ensures the proper maintenance of gastrointestinal homeostasis and digestion but is likely to have multiple effects on affect, motivation and higher cognitive functions, including intuitive decision making.

Moreover, disturbances of this system have been implicated in a wide range of disorders, including functional and inflammatory gastrointestinal disorders, obesity and eating disorders.

Emeran Mayer, Prof på UCLA. HER.
Indeed, emerging data suggest communication between the gut and the brain in anxiety, depression, cognition, and autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The development of a healthy, functional brain depends on key pre- and post-natal events that integrate environmental cues, such as molecular signals from the gut. These cues largely originate from the microbiome, the consortium of symbiotic bacteria that reside within all animals.

Frå denne artikkelen, av forskarar på CalTech.

Sunday, December 4, 2016



Elskar denne songen.


Ho her er utdanna lege, har doktorgrad i nevrologi, og mastergrad i tillegg. Ho står bak den kjente "GAPS"-dietten, som handlar om å ete sunt for å styrke immunforsvaret.

Det ho seier her om autoimmune sjukdomar er kjempeinteressant, og så langt eg kan døme i nær kontakt med den seriøse forskninga. Ho peikar på ulike mekanismar for utvikling av ulike autoimmune sjukdomar. Når det gjeld RA, peikar ho på at giftige avfallsstoff i tarmen kjem ut i kroppen, og desse har lett for å knyte seg til kollagen, som er eit elastisitetsprotein i ledda. Dermed angrip kroppen kollagenet som er infisert. Ho anbefalar alt det som Blum og co anbefaler: Å endre bakteriekulturen og "seal the gut", dvs. sørge for at inflammatoriske tilstandar som aukar gjennomtrenginga i tarmveggen, vert minska.

Mercola får kvar tenke kva ein vil om; han er skulemedisiner, men også open for mykje holistisk, så her er det vel berre å bruke hovudet.




Her er meir. Det er berre ekstremt tankevekkande å sjå henne fortelje at nær 100% av pasientane hennar som ho behandla for nevrologiske problem, også hadde fordøyingsproblem. Og skulemedisinen anerkjente ikkje nokon samanheng den gongen. Det vart sett som tilfeldig. Men no er jo forskninga der, frå dei beste universiteta, som peikar utvetydig på samanhengen. (Mykje forskning gjenstår, mykje kan reviderast etc. Men ja). Har ikkje sett heile filmen, går ikkje nødvendigvis god for alt her etc., men den som vil, kan sjå.